IT Glossary

Marketing Service Providers (MSPs)

…al services, system integration, creative services, third-party data, and application service provider (ASP) and hosted solutions for marketing organizations. MSPs’ competencies include customer data integration (CDI), data quality and deduping, database marketing, prospecting, campaign management, marketing resource management (MRM), customer analytics, e-marketing and advertising. Competencies range from technology hosting to full…

Variable Bit Rate (VBR)

…VBR) and non real-time variable bit rate (nrtVBR) are defined. Apart from the traffic parameters for peak cell rate (PCR) and sustainable cell rate (which defines the average bit rate required by the application), additional quality-of-service parameters such as maximum cell transfer delay, cell delay variation and maximum burst size must be agreed upon. The typical application for which it is used is compressed voice and videoconferencing for…

Automated Testing

…tests provide consistent results and data points. The benefits are ease of maintenance, the ability to efficiently use resources in off-peak hours, and the capability to create reports based on the executed tests. Associated quality management tools include functionality for test planning, test case management and defect management (the governance piece of quality). Read reviews of Software Test Automation… Gartner Peer Insights has over…

Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG)

…tion images. The compression ratios achieved with MPEG encoding make it an ideal standard for the delivery of digital video data. MPEG-1 deals with mono and stereo sound coding, at sampling frequencies commonly used for high-quality audio. MPEG-2 contains an extension to lower sampling frequencies, providing better sound quality at the low bit rates, and an extension for multichannel sound. MPEG-3 and MPEG-4, with further improvements, are under…

Process Analytical Technology (PAT)

…Process analytical technology (PAT) is a system for analysis and control of manufacturing processes that measures critical quality parameters and performance attributes of raw and in-process materials. It enables in-process data to be used for assessing the quality of a batch during manufacture, significantly reduces the need for finished product testing, and as a result, improves lead times….


…P3) and movie (for example, MPEG) files that must first be downloaded, streaming media begins playing within a few seconds of the request. Streaming requires a streaming encoder (which converts the audio or video source to a data stream), a streaming server that delivers the encoded media over a network, and a client media player that cooperates with the server to deliver uninterrupted media. To compensate for variations in network quality and…

Social Network Analysis (SNA)

…the social structure and interdependencies (or work patterns) of individuals or organizations. SNA involves collecting data from multiple sources (such as surveys, emails, blogs and other electronic artifacts), analyzing the data to identify relationships, and mining it for new information—such as the quality or effectiveness of a relationship. Organizational network analysis is the form of SNA that examines the information flow among…

Block Error Rate

…In data communications testing, block error rate is defined as the ratio between the total number of blocks transmitted in a given message and the number of blocks in that message received in error; a measure of the quality of a data transmission….

CPM suites

…tors (KPIs) to a strategy map, with a hierarchical cause-and-effect relationship among the KPIs. Scorecards are often used in conjunction with a particular methodology, such as the balanced scorecard, European Foundation for Quality Management, value-based management or Six Sigma.  Financial consolidation — This type of application enables organizations to reconcile, consolidate, summarize and aggregate financial data based on different…

Enterprise Nervous System (ENS)

…enterprise network, but it is an evolution of that network, providing value-added functions that elevate the role of the network well beyond that of plain communication. Whereas a conventional network simply aims to transfer data between sending application systems and explicitly defined destinations, an ENS offloads work from the application systems because it: Offers enhanced quality-of-service for communication Transforms messages Redirects…

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