Gartner Blog Network

Facebook is not a Social Network

by Darin Stewart  |  March 28, 2011  |  9 Comments

I finally got around to watching “The Social Network”, the film chronicling the rise of Mark Zuckerberg and Facebook. The movie was excellent, but I found myself obsessing over the title, The Social Network.  I frequently hear the terms “Facebook” and “Social Network” used more or less interchangeably, like the brand name Scotch Tape™ and the more generic transparent adhesive strips. It’s a convenient shorthand and gets the general idea across, but it is also incorrect.  Facebook is not in and of itself a social network.  It is a tool that facilitates social networks.  It is a subtle but important distinction.  A social network is a social structure (more anthropological than technological) made up of people, organizations and the interrelationships among them. If we focus purely on the websites, the tools, the games that surround social networks it is easy to lose sight of their purported reason for existing, which is to foster and facilitate these connections and interactions among people.

Everyone reading this blog participates in a social network and most likely participates in several. This is true even if you have never logged into Facebook and still think a tweet has something to do with a parakeet. We know people and we interact with them. Those people are nodes in our network. Our relationships with them, whether casual and infrequent or intimate and constant, are the ties, weak and strong, between those nodes.  Each network is organized around some defining commonality among its members.  This could be professional or familial ties, a shared interest in baroque chamber music or even monster truck rallies. These various networks may or may not overlap, sharing nodes and ties. But it is the complexity and ever shifting dynamics of these structures that make them interesting. So interesting in fact that an entire science, social network analysis or SNA, has developed to quantify, measure and study them. SNA can tell you how information flows through your organization. Who the influencers and opinion makers are. How you are regarded by the community. Who is about to resign or ask for a raise. Basically it gives you a snapshot of how work really gets done and how communication actually happens in an organization or community. So these fuzzy things called social networks are in reality quite concrete and actionable.

While social networks have existed since the dawn of human civilization, social media is something entirely new. When we talk about “web 2.0” we are really talking about the ability of the general, non-technical end user to contribute content to the web. In the early days there was a very high bar to publishing content online. There was this shadowy HTML priesthood, comprised of geeky young men of questionable hygiene that served as the gatekeepers of what did or did not see the light of day on the web. Now, thanks to YouTube, Flickr, WordPress and countless other social media services, anyone can publish rich media content with very little effort, at essentially no cost and perhaps most importantly with absolutely no editorial review or oversight. While some see this as the death of quality content others see it as the democratization of cyberspace.

Social Computing brings together social networks and social media. It enables discussion and conversation around the objects we and others contribute to the web. It also extends the number and diversity of the people with whom we can have those conversations. Anthropologist Robin Dunbar has suggested (and actually demonstrated with fairly compelling evidence) that the theoretical maximum social group size for unaided humans is between 100 and 230 people, probably settling in around 150. According to Dunbar:

The figure of 150 seems to represent the maximum number of individuals with whom we can have a genuinely social relationship, the kind of relationship that goes with knowing who they are and how they relate to us. Putting it another way, it’s the number of people you would not feel embarrassed about joining uninvited for a drink if you happened to bump into them in a bar.

By reducing the time and effort it takes to keep track of other people’s activities, both personal and professional, social computing platforms have the potential to dramatically increase the number of people with whom you can have a social relationship, in essence increasing your memory capacity for potentially valuable contacts. In my view, this is the truly revolutionary aspect of the modern web. Prior to the availability of social computing technologies, the range of our associations and influences could arguably be considered quite provincial, even if we consider ourselves rather cosmopolitan, purely because of the limits of geography and the number of relationships we can keep straight in our heads.

Many pundits have lamented the popularity of social computing platforms, like Facebook, seeing in them the death of “authentic” relationships and social interactions.  Such doomsaying isn’t new or unique to social computing.  Plato worried that the popularity of the written word would spell the end of human memory and oration.  Somehow that never came to pass.  Rather, this uppity, newfangled medium (writing) enabled new forms of interaction and made ideas available beyond those who happened to be present when they were first spoken.  The key, both in antiquity and today, is to focus on the content not the tool.  Facebook is a great, though imperfect, platform for the creation and nurturing of social networks. It is important to remember though, that it is not the tools but the underlying relationships that are the whole point.

Category: collaboration  social-computing  

Tags: social-computing  social-media  social-network-analysis  social-networks  

Darin Stewart
Research Vice President
6 years with Gartner
21 years IT industry

Darin Stewart is a research vice president for Gartner in the Collaboration and Content Strategies service. He covers search, knowledge management, semantic technologies and enterprise content management. Read Full Bio

Thoughts on Facebook is not a Social Network

  1. Saqib Ali says:


    Excellent post – one that every employee of Forrester and Gartner should read!

    It is bad enough that the marketing folks and the self-proclaimed “social-media experts” misuse the term Social Networks. But it is worse when Gartner and Forrester uses the term Social Network to refer to what is actually Social Media. They just make things worse.

    I got so fed up of the such blatant misuse of the term, that I wrote the following post:
    Please, please, please don’t call it “Social Networking”, unless you wanna appear clueless


  2. Julie Earnest says:

    Darin, this is excellent! I have been amused in recent years how many people also use the term “social networking” when they really mean “social network analysis” – including Barbara Alving, Director of NCRR. I am happy to have this blog post to point people toward in the future.


  3. Aixe Djelal says:

    This post is a great reminder that even if you have a profile on a social media platform and contribute content, it does not automatically qualify you as either social or a networker.

    Too frequently Facebook is used as an anti-social platform for endless soliloquies, resulting in blocked posts and unfriending.

    Hopefully the next wave of social networking proponents will focus on socialization and constructive networking rather than on the exciting new car smell of the tools themselves.

  4. Please, please, please don’t call it “Social Networking”, unless you wanna appear clueless…

    These days I am seeing a gross, egregious, and flagrant misuse of the term “Social Network”. Every company that implements a micro-blogging solution w/ profiles for their employees wants t ……

  5. Mike Gotta says:

    Hi Darrin, welcome to the analyst gig! More accurate is to say that Facebook is a social network site, which builds off the research of Nicole Ellison and dana boyd

    This work forms the basis of the CCS reference architecture for an enterprise social network site. Obviously social networking does occur via an SNS, FB provides the social infrastructure for those interactions – you might want to read the thesis by Fred Stutzman that examines SNS’s as social infrastructure, interesting viewpoint.

    Also might recommend some of the following posts:

  6. Saqib Ali says:


    Calling facebook a “social network site” is a a slippery slop. Then we will have to call wordpress, posterous, blogger, and tumblr a social network site too. Because they all allow you to follow other people and build your social graph. By that definition all web 2.0 apps will be social networking sites.

    Let’s just call facebook what it is – a social media site.


  7. Mike Gotta says:

    Saqib, we will agree to disagree here. Ellison and boyd defined a model that is credible and based on analysis of such sites over time. If more and more sites fit the model, then “it is what it is”. Formation of social structures do occur, that’s really undeniable. You can obfuscate the network dynamics by calling it something else but it does not mean that networks are not taking shape.

  8. Saqib Ali says:


    Like I said on my tweet response, social networks are built at my barber shop too, but I never call my barber shop a social networking site :)

    I am okay with agreeing to disagreeing, but I don’t people to adopt a terminology just because one random research paper uses that term to define a structure.


  9. Mike Gotta says:

    Saqib, I guess you will have to suffer through Gartner using the term :) The IT1 group (“Burton Group”) has used the term since about 2008 as a reference architecture, or pattern, for this type of site. In fact, the model was used in to assess vendor capabilities in this space. If you have access, you can setup a call with Larry Cannell.

Comments are closed

Comments or opinions expressed on this blog are those of the individual contributors only, and do not necessarily represent the views of Gartner, Inc. or its management. Readers may copy and redistribute blog postings on other blogs, or otherwise for private, non-commercial or journalistic purposes, with attribution to Gartner. This content may not be used for any other purposes in any other formats or media. The content on this blog is provided on an "as-is" basis. Gartner shall not be liable for any damages whatsoever arising out of the content or use of this blog.