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How “Smart” Can Government 2.0 Be?

by Andrea Di Maio  |  December 22, 2009  |  5 Comments

Lately the terms “smart” or “smarter” have become quite fashionable in combination with terms like “city”, “planet” or “government”. Vendors such as IBM, Oracle, Cisco and others use this adjective to allude to how the use of information technology can help government agencies or entire jurisdictions to better achieve their strategic objectives.

Like most catchy terms, “smart” or “smarter” carry multiple meanings. Smart means environmentally sustainable, but also financially savvy, innovative, citizen-centric, integrated, transparent, and much else.

They may also carry a negative connotation. Does the fact the government needs to become smarter imply that it is not smart enough today? Does the move toward being a smart city assume that the city is rather dumb now?

I believe there are four different ways of “being smart”:

  1. Smart in planning. By using up-to-date, accurate data about past year performances, citizen needs, political priorities, governments can articulate a strategic plan that balances the multiple objectives of the political leadership (mayor, governor, prime minister)
  2. Smart in oversight. By using up-to-date, accurate data about current performances and checking them against their strategic plan, governments can promptly reprioritize activities, rebalance resources, and – where needed – trigger another strategic planning cycle.
  3. Smart in operation. By using real-time data from both information systems (supporting internal and citizen-facing processes) and operational systems (e.g. environmental monitoring, electrical grid, road charging), governments can ensure optimal management of resources as well as an effective functioning of the critical infrastructures they are responsible for.
  4. Smart in engagement. By providing open and transparent information to citizens and constantly engaging with them in planning, oversight and operation, governments can continuously improve both the performance of their jurisdiction and the level of satisfaction of their citizens.

Governments can decide to be smart wherever they like, but I would argue that there is a natural progression from 1 to 4. Many jurisdictions already plan very smartly, and a few are rather good at checking their progress against plans and take corrective actions. Even fewer have entered the realm of “smart operations”, and mostly in a quite patchy fashion. Finally, many spell terms like “openness” or “engagement” but almost none has taken a truly holistic view of engagement

For many people, “government 2.0” refers to engagement. It is about providing open data to people who can help government do its job.

But my contention is that not all “government 2.0” strategies and plans are conducive to being really “smart in engagement”. In order to productively engage citizens in planning, oversight and operations, governments need to be also smart in planning, oversight and operations. This does not mean that they must be excellent at doing all this (otherwise there would be little point in asking people for help), but they must have processes, policies and architectures in place that allow the outcome of that engagement to be turned into improved plans, oversight and operations.

Open government data is only one component. The concept of open data must be extended to a wealth of operational data (see previous post), government processes and services need to be able to interoperate with processes and services developed by an ecosystem of third parties (including virtual communities), and engagement has to work both ways (from citizen to government and from government to citizen).

It is probably easier to be open or 2.0, than to be really smart.

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Category: open-government-data  

Tags: government-20  smart-city  

Andrea Di Maio
Managing VP
19 years at Gartner
33 years IT industry

Andrea Di Maio is a managing vice president for public sector in Gartner Research, covering government and education. His personal research focus is on digital government strategies, open government, the business value of IT, smart cities, and the impact of technology on the future of government Read Full Bio


Thoughts on How “Smart” Can Government 2.0 Be?


  1. […] This post was mentioned on Twitter by Andrea DiMaio, Edgar Rovira. Edgar Rovira said: RT @AndreaDiMaio: How “Smart” Can Government 2.0 Be? – http://bit.ly/6PYpIO #gov20 #opengov #smartcity […]

  2. Craig thomler says:

    Andrea, people are smart, not organizations or systems.

    Employ smart people, give them authority and budgets and they will ensure that organizations and systems behave as if they were smart.

    Just note that ‘smart’ people are not necessarily those with the most degrees, highest IQs or the best smoochers. They are the ones with passion and the skills to deliver, a mix of intelligence, vision, tenacity, adaptibility and leadership.

    I have never seen a ‘smart’ system, ‘smart’ government or ‘smart’ company – just ones created and run by smart people.

  3. @Craig – I do wholeheartedly agree, which is why I keep insisting on the importance of employee-centricity.
    On the other hand I think it possible to identify certain organizational traits, in terms of priorities and processes, that point toward whether that organization as a whole is smart. Actually there are plenty of organizations that failed in spite of how many smart people they employed.

  4. […] How “Smart” Can Government 2.0 Be? Odd post (random defintion of smart – Andrea is not the biggest engager so does that mean he isn't smart? – and disagree on there being some sort of natural progression between these random 4 phases of smartness) but maybe worth a read anyway (tags: government gov20 gartner smartergovernment policy) […]

  5. @FutureGov (Dominic)
    My point about the “progression” is just that – as I mention – there seems to be more maturity in smart planning than in smart oversight than in smart operations.
    What I am also saying is that governments can decide to be “smart” wherever they like: you do not mean to me “smart in engagement” to be smart in operations. Unfortunately, I am not smart in either 🙂



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